Dynamic range refers to the range of brightness levels that a camera is capable of capturing and reproducing in an image. The dynamic range of a film camera varies depending on the type of film used, however, generally, film has a limited dynamic range compared to modern digital cameras.
The Arri Alexa, on the other hand, is a high-end digital cinema camera that has a much wider dynamic range compared to film cameras. According to Arri, the Alexa has a dynamic range of over 14 stops, which is significantly higher than the dynamic range of most films. This means that the Alexa is capable of capturing a greater range of brightness levels in an image, from the darkest shadows to the brightest highlights, without losing detail in either extreme.
The increased dynamic range of the Alexa allows for greater flexibility in post-production, as more detail is retained in both the highlights and shadows. This allows colorists and DITs (digital imaging technicians) to make more precise adjustments to the image without having to worry about losing detail in either extreme.
Additionally, the Alexa uses a proprietary sensor and image processing pipeline that allows it to capture a wider range of colors compared to traditional film cameras. This increased color gamut allows for more accurate and lifelike color reproduction, which can be especially important for certain types of shoots, such as those with a lot of green foliage or sunsets with a wide range of colors.
In conclusion, the dynamic range of a film camera is limited compared to the Arri Alexa. The Alexa's wider dynamic range, greater color gamut, and more precise image processing make it a highly capable tool for capturing images with a wide range of brightness levels and colors. The Alexa is widely considered to be one of the best digital cinema cameras on the market, and is used by many top cinematographers and filmmakers.