A high school jazz band typically includes a variety of musical instruments, each with a unique role in creating the band's sound. The specific composition of a jazz band can vary depending on the school, the band director's preferences, and the availability of instruments and players.
One of the most important instruments in a jazz band is the saxophone. The saxophone is often used to play the lead melody in jazz songs, and is an essential component of the classic jazz sound. Jazz bands may have multiple saxophonists playing different types of saxophones, including alto, tenor, and baritone.
The trumpet is another crucial instrument in a jazz band, and is often used to play high-pitched melodies and solos. Jazz bands typically have multiple trumpets, each of which may play different parts to create a rich, layered sound.
The trombone is a third brass instrument commonly found in jazz bands. Trombones are typically used to play low-pitched parts, and can help create a deep, rich sound in the band's overall music.
In addition to these brass instruments, jazz bands typically include a rhythm section consisting of a piano, bass, and drums. The piano is used to play chords and harmonies, and can also be used for solos. The bass provides the foundation for the band's sound, and is often used to play a walking bass line that sets the rhythm for the other instruments. The drums provide the beat for the band, and can be used to create complex rhythms and solos.
Other instruments that may be found in a high school jazz band include the guitar, which can be used for chords and solos, and the vibraphone, which can add a unique sound to the band's music. Some jazz bands also include other brass or woodwind instruments, such as the clarinet or flugelhorn, to add additional depth and variety to the sound.
Source: "Jazz Band Instrumentation" by Todd Stoll, Jazz at Lincoln Center.